The Klein-Gordon Propagator

1. Klein-Gordon Equation The Klein-Gordon equation is a relativistic wave equation, related to the Schrödinger equation. It is second order in space and time and manifestly Lorentz covariant. It is a quantized version of the relativistic energy–momentum relation. Its solutions include a quantum scalar or pseudoscalar field, a field whose quanta are spinless particles. The […]

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Blackbody Radiation

1.  What is Blackbody Radiation?   All normal matter emits electromagnetic radiation when it has a temperature above absolute zero. The radiation represents a conversion of a body’s thermal energy into electromagnetic energy, and is therefore called thermal radiation. It is a spontaneous process of radiative distribution of entropy.

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Boltzmann Transport Equation

Before Maxwell and Gibbs introduced ensemble theory, physicists such as Bernoulli, Herapath, Joule, Kronig, Clausius, Boltzmann and so on has constructed the kinetic theory which is the beginnings of statistical mechanics. Kinetic theory starts with the microscopic movements of all of the particles, try to find out the distribution of these particles in space. Based […]

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