Blackbody Radiation

1.  What is Blackbody Radiation?   All normal matter emits electromagnetic radiation when it has a temperature above absolute zero. The radiation represents a conversion of a body’s thermal energy into electromagnetic energy, and is therefore called thermal radiation. It is a spontaneous process of radiative distribution of entropy.

Read More

Boltzmann Transport Equation

Before Maxwell and Gibbs introduced ensemble theory, physicists such as Bernoulli, Herapath, Joule, Kronig, Clausius, Boltzmann and so on has constructed the kinetic theory which is the beginnings of statistical mechanics. Kinetic theory starts with the microscopic movements of all of the particles, try to find out the distribution of these particles in space. Based […]

Read More

Differential Forms

The definition of Differential Forms Differential 1-forms A differential 1 form on a manifold is a sooth map (1)   of the tangent bundle of to the line, linear on each tangent space One could say that a differential 1-form on is an algebraic 1-form on which is “differentiable with respect to .” Also we […]

Read More